Visual identifiers  such as color are also essential in a hospital setting. Hospital Trauma BandSome states use color-coded wristbands for their patients. Alan Rabinowitz, Administrator of the Patient Safety Authority in Pennsylvania, an independent state agency, wanted to warn that the use of color-coded patient wristbands could create an unnecessary risk. Elderly Man A Fall RiskIn discussing a recent “near miss” medical disaster he concluded “The problem was caused partly by a healthcare provider’s confusion about the meaning of a yellow wristband. In this particular facility, a yellow wristband indicated `Do Not Resuscitate,’ but in a nearby facility a yellow wristband is used to mean that a patient should not have blood work or an IV placed in that particular arm.”(Kram, 2005)
The Pennsylvania Patient Safety Reporting Sys­tem received national attention by implementing a consistent wris­tband coloring system for patients. When a nurse mistakenly placed the wrong colored wristband on a patient, they realized that they needed to implement a statewide system. The nurse who worked at a second hospital became confused with the color-coded system and placed the wrong colored wristband onto a patient. The statewide system employed the following color scheme:Hospital Trauma Band Pennsylvania is not alone in standardizing its colors and meanings. Due to the Authority’s Supplementary Pennsylvania  Pati­ent Safety Advisory that raised awareness of the issue, forty states have adopted some form of the standard developed by the Colors  of Patient Safety Task Force. The U.S. armed forces have also adopted the standardization protocols set forth in Pennsylvania.”  (Risk, C.-coded W. C., & Facilities, H. (n.d.). Patient Safety Tips.)

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